FERGANA: HISTORY AND CONTEMPORARITY
Including most breathtaking towns of Uzbekistan, Fergana region lies in the eastern part of the country. Surprisingly, four thousand years ago people lived here were well-aware of the agricultural techniques. In the Persian chronicles it was cited as “ Parkana”, while the Chinese mentioned it as “ Dovon” in their scripts. In ancient times Dovon was famous for its celestial horses to which the Chinese King showed a great interest.
Fergana is hometown of Ahmed al-Fergani who was a great scientist, astronomer and the author of hundreds of scientific, religious, philosophical and spiritual books. He was able to measure the original premise of Heliocentricity of our Solar System.
In the XVII-XIX centuries there founded Kokand Khonate. During this period development in science, art, culture continued. Many of the architectural monuments were built in this era. The Fergana city was established in 1876, after the Russian Empire conquered the khanate and was named as New Margilan at that time. The military fortress was the main building of the city and new streets were constructed in a semicircle from it. In 1907 the name of the city changed into Skobelov, and since 1924 it has been called Fergana.
In 1992 the first Independence Gate was built here with the height of 14 meters, 26 meters in length. The young city has a special appeal, decorated with plane trees, oaks, poplars Fergana looks like a green garden.
In the suburbs you can see more picturesque scenes, especially in the Alai Range foothills there are a lot of gardens, vineyards, village Chimyan. Here is situated Chimyan Spa Resort, which is considered the largest one in the Central Asia well-known for its healing springs. What’smore, 55 km away from Fergana Shahimardan (Lord of people) is situated in the wonderful mountains which is traditionally recreational place for citizens of Fergana Valley.
Kokand is considered one of the oldest cities of Uzbekistan. In the X century historical chronicles stated about the city Havokande, Hukande, which were the main trade center in the Great Silk Road in the XIII century. However, it was destroyed by Gengiz Khan as many Central Asian cities.
After the Sheibanids dynasty Central Asia was divided into three parts by Bukhara Emirate, Khiva Khanate and Kokand Khanate. In the XVIII century the capital city Kokand became world-famous as the Kokand Khanate was getting richer and better-developed state. It was an enormous country including major part of Uzbekistan, southern Kazakstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikstan and China; the center of trade and religion. In Kokand city were built over dozens of madrassahs and 300 mosques.
During 170 years history the Kokand Khanate changed 29 governors, every of whom contributed to beautify the state eracting guzars, new roads, mosques, madrassahs, gardens.
In 1868 the state became under control of the Russian Empire, since that time in Kokand modern European-styled buildings started to be constructed. Today all the architectural monuments belong to the XVIII-XIX centuries have been preserved in good condition in Kokand.